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[27] The Provincial Government shut down hundreds of government-run primary schools, citing lack of funds. [137] [35], From 1946 to 1947, Rajagopalachari served as the Minister for Industry, Supply, Education, and Finance in the Interim Government headed by Jawaharlal Nehru.
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"[98], The fourth elections to the Madras Legislative assembly were held in February 1967. [59][60][61] Rajagopalachari remained unmoved by Sriramulu's action and refused to intervene. Fear of failure: Friend or foe? He frequently wrote articles for Kalki and his own journal Swarajya, of which Philip Spratt was editor. [90] In 1958, he was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award for works in the Tamil language for his retelling of the Ramayana – Chakravarti Thirumagan.

For the 1999 Bollywood film, see, Mootharignar C. Rajagopalachari Commemorative Stamp, 1962 Madras legislative assembly elections, India's use of military force against Portugal, fourth elections to the Madras Legislative assembly, 1971 Tamil Nadu Legislative assembly elections, Modified Scheme of Elementary education 1953, List of places named after C. Rajagopalachari, "C. Rajagopalachari: The icon India needs today", "How Rajendra Prasad (and not Rajaji) became India's first president", "Statistical Report on General Elections 1951 to the First Lok Sabha", "Statistical Report on General Elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha", "The Rise and Fall of the Bilingual Intellectual",, "Remembering Rajaji – The men and women of character who once ruled and guided us", "Appendix Q: Modified Scheme of Elementary Education Madras", "Statistical Report on General Election 1962 to the Legislative Assembly of Madras", "Statistical Report on General Elections 1962 to the Second Lok Sabha", "Remembering the 1965 Anti Hindi Struggle", "DETAILS OF TERMS OF SUCCESSIVE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLIES CONSTITUTED UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA", "General Election of India 1971, 5th Lok Sabha", "Statistical Report on General Election 1971 to the Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu", "Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan – Delhi Kendra Home Page",, "News Analysis | Hindi imposition and the T.N. [84], He outlined the goals of the Swatantra Party through twenty one "fundamental principles" in the foundation document. [72], Following his resignation as Chief Minister, Rajagopalachari took a temporary break from active politics and instead devoted his time to literary pursuits.

), Self process in development: Minnesota Symposium of Child Psychology (Vol 29. pp. Increased student engagement and motivation is key to academic and behavioral success. He died on 25 December 1972 at age 94. [8], Rajagopalachari married Alamelu Mangalamma in 1897[8] and the couple had five children, three sons: C. R. Narasimhan, C. R. Krishnaswamy, and C. R. Ramaswami, and two daughters: Lakshmi Gandhi (née Rajagopalachari) and Namagiri Ammal C. R. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India commented: Mr. Rajagopalachari was one of the makers of new India, a sincere patriot, a man whose penetrating intellect and moral sense added depth to national affairs. According to Flink, Boggiano, and Barrett (1990) those teachers who support a student’s autonomy tend to facilitate greater motivation, curiosity, and desire to be challenged. [71] Rajagopalachari eventually resigned as Chief Minister on 13 April 1954, attributing the decision to poor health. Kontos, S., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. [63][64] However, the boundaries of the new state were determined by a commission which decided against the inclusion of Madras city. Rajagopalachari's interest in public affairs and politics began when he commenced his legal practice in Salem in 1900. Rajagopalachari composed a benediction hymn sung by M. S. Subbulakshmi at the United Nations General Assembly in 1967. [citation needed] During the subsequent poll held on 31 March 1954, Rajagopalachari fielded C. Subramaniam against Kamaraj.
In 1951, he wrote an abridged retelling of the Mahabharata in English,[118][119] followed by one of the Ramayana in 1957.

He later advocated co-operation over Britain's war effort and opposed the Quit India Movement. [117], Rajagopalachari started the Tamil Scientific Terms Society in 1916,[116] a group that coined new words in Tamil for terms connected to botany, chemistry, physics, astronomy and mathematics. Educational risk and resilience in African-American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in school. By the end of 1949, an assumption was made that Rajagopalachari, already governor-general, would continue as president.

Read our, Peter Dazeley/Photographer's Choice/Getty Images, Reasons Why You Should Consider Quitting Smoking, The Difference Between Smoker's Lungs and Normal Healthy Lungs, Global Smoking Statistics Shows How Bad Tobacco Use Is for You, The Biggest Smoking Risk Isn't Lung Disease, How Smoking Can Increase Health Risks in Alcoholics. Thijs, J., & Verkuyten, M. (2009). [116] In 1922, he published Siraiyil Tavam (Meditation in jail), a day-to-day account of his first imprisonment by the British from 21 December 1921 to 20 March 1922. [125] Nixon wrote three pages of notes recording Rajagopalachari's words, claiming in his memoirs thirty-six years later that the afternoon "had such a dramatic effect on me that I used many of his thoughts in my speeches over the next several years. [33] He subsequently resigned from the party and the assembly following differences over resolutions passed by the Madras Congress legislative party and disagreements with the leader of the Madras provincial Congress K. Our free guide can help you get on the right track. Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. [120] In 1965, he translated the Thirukkural into English and also wrote books on the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads in English as well as works on Socrates, and Marcus Aurelius in Tamil.

[37] He declared his commitment to neutrality and justice at a meeting of Muslim businessmen: "Whatever may be my defects or lapses, let me assure you that I shall never disfigure my life with any deliberate acts of injustice to any community whatsoever. Globally, nearly 5.5 million people die from tobacco use annually, and if current trends continue, that number is expected to increase to eight million by the year 2030.

Martin, A. Bandura, A. The following tips are provided in an effort to provide teachers with suggestions on how they might proactively begin the school year in an effort to improve and cultivate student motivation and engagement. [77], Rajagopalachari tendered his official resignation from the Indian National Congress and along with a number of other dissidents organised the Congress Reform Committee (CRC) in January 1957. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [125] The pair discussed spiritual life, particularly reincarnation and predestination. [101] The Congress party was defeated in Madras for the first time in 30 years and the coalition led by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam came to power. [76][119] Earlier, in 1961, he had translated Kambar's Tamil Ramayana into English. Rajagopalachari was an accomplished writer who made lasting contributions to Indian English literature and is also credited with composition of the song Kurai Onrum Illai set to Carnatic music. The burden on some of us is more than we can carry. [36] While Nehru perceived the Hindu Mahasabha to be the greatest threat to the nascent republic, Rajagopalachari held the opinion that the Communists posed the greatest danger. In the U.S., cigarette smoking accounts for approximately 480,000 deaths a year.

Child Development, 65, 493-506. [37] During his tenure as governor, Rajagopalachari's priorities were to deal with refugees and to bring peace and stability in the aftermath of the Calcutta riots. [40] Rajagopalachari was eventually chosen as the governor-general when Nehru disagreed with Mountbatten's first choice, as did Patel himself. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. [23][23] When the Indian National Congress split in 1923, Rajagopalachari was a member of the Civil Disobedience Enquiry Committee. In March 1938 Rajagopalachari introduced the Agricultural Debt Relief Act, to ease the burden of debt on the province's peasant population. During the last years of the war, Kamaraj was requested by Nehru, PM; Sardar Vallabbhai Patel, Home Minister; and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to make Rajaji the Premier of Madras Presidency. [22] When the motion was put to the vote, the "No-changers" won by 1,748 to 890 votes resulting in the resignation of important Congress leaders including Pandit Motilal Nehru and C. R. Das, the President of the Indian National Congress. [97] When the Anti-Hindi agitations broke out in 1965, Rajagopalachari completely reversed his 1938 support for the introduction of Hindi and took a strongly anti-Hindi stand in support of the protests,[98] On 17 January 1965, he convened the Madras state Anti-Hindi conference in Tiruchirapalli. Rajagopalachari was described by Gandhi as the "keeper of my conscience". [28], Rajagopalachari's tenure as Chief Minister of Madras is largely remembered for the compulsory introduction of Hindi in educational institutions, which made him highly unpopular. eLife. In his short essay "Our Democracy", Rajagopalachari explained the necessity for a right-wing alternative to the Congress by saying: since... the Congress Party has swung to the Left, what is wanted is not an ultra or outer-Left [viz. [37] One such proposal by the editor of an important newspaper led to the reply: "I see that you are not able to restrain the policy of agitation over inter-provincial boundaries. [8] His son Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari Narasimhan was elected to the Lok Sabha from Krishnagiri in the 1952 and 1957 elections and served as a member of parliament for Krishnagiri from 1952 to 1962. On 21 February 1940 the unpopular new law on the use of Hindi was quickly repealed by the Governor of Madras. After Mahatma Gandhi joined the Indian independence movement in 1919, Rajagopalachari became one of his followers. His analysis, his anticipation, his administrative acumen and his courage to steer an unpopular course if he felt the need, marked him as a statesman and made an impact on the national history at several crucial junctures. [80] The Congress Reform Committee also contested 12 Lok Sabha seats during the 1957 Indian elections. Zepke, N., & Leach, L. (2010). [103] Rajagopalachari pleaded with him not to repeal prohibition but to no avail[104] and as a result, the Swatantra Party withdrew its support for the state government[105] and instead allied with the Congress, a breakaway faction of the Indian National Congress led by Kamaraj.

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