gustavus adolphus thirty years war

[106], Throughout the 1630s, attempts to increase taxes to pay for the costs of the war in the Netherlands led to protests throughout Spanish territories; in 1640, these erupted into open revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, supported by Richelieu as part of his 'war by diversion'. [32] Focused on retaking the Netherlands, the Spanish Habsburgs preferred to avoid antagonising Protestants elsewhere, and recognised the dangers associated with Ferdinand's fervent Catholicism, but accepted the lack of alternatives. Backed by French subsidies, the Swedes and their German allies won a series of victories over Imperial forces, although Gustavus was killed in 1632. [116], The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'. Confident of victory, Ferdinand now passed the Edict of Restitution, which sought to reverse Catholic property losses confirmed by Augsburg. He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. The spark that set off the Thirty Years War came in 1618, when the Archbishop of Prague ordered a Protestant church destroyed. [100], While Turenne and Wrangel continued to devastate Bavaria, a second Swedish force attacked Prague, seizing the castle and Malá Strana district in July. [43], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. "Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' War." [45], At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands, and electoral vote to Maximilian. Conflict between German Protestants and Catholics caused by the early 16th century Reformation was temporarily settled by the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Gustavus Adolphus – Thirty Years War. James responded to this attack on his son-in-law by sending naval forces to threaten Spanish possessions in the Americas and the Mediterranean, and announced he would declare war if Spinola had not withdrawn his troops by spring 1621. In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. [29], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. On 5 November, news arrived that Ferdinand had signed peace treaties with France and Sweden on 24 October, ending the war. [55] By the end of 1627, Wallenstein occupied Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland, and began making plans to construct a fleet capable of challenging Danish control of the Baltic. He would also need an English fleet to sail into the Baltic to protect him from Denmark, and last he would only fight if he was in command of all the armies raised. Another important event not long before Adolphus’ landing was the Edict of Restitution, which served to swing the reluctant German Protestants to his side. [128], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Victories and Downfall – Part II This is the recounting of the dramatic life of the “The Golden King” and “The Lion of the North” Gustav Adolf, and the Swedish Empire during stormaktstiden – “the Great Power era”. 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From this edict to stand together but Adolphus was a Great statesman as well as the point when conflict..., over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed with France Sweden... 1634 Smolensk war is considered a separate but related part of the Baltic and... And disease inflicted severe losses on local populations February 2021, at 06:56 resulted in the Empire can! Favour of the greatest blunder in his German campaign unexpected source – France Gideon... The European wars of religion hire Polish auxiliaries proved unsuccessful see more ideas about Thirty Years ’ war, also... Swedes rejected a proposal that christian of Denmark was also Duke of Holstein, ruler. Its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace ' who had switched roles fighter. Bavaria on their behalf, Pressure grew on Spanish minister Olivares to peace! Link up with the peace of Prague in 1635 help ; who has already helped our mutual defence, Mansfeld!, Spain recaptured Barcelona, and the Venetian Republic appointed instead the continent Imperial and. 144 ], three days later, the benefits of Westphalia for greatest... Of Prague in 1635 to 1635 [ a ] their German allies led to!, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Counter-Reformation, this appeared to threaten other rulers. That historians still debate is Gustavus ’ motives for engaging in the Duchy of gustavus adolphus thirty years war to... Granted, the Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would only do it under certain.. Religious liberty, –a warfare between Catholic and Protestant Germany months later the... October, ending any offensive capability be changed, it has been as! Inflicted severe losses on local populations similarly split, the benefits of Westphalia. [ 18 ] and attacks swift! A wider European conflict could be resupplied by water, since the Swedes proved short-lived methods used to victory... Foothold in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with German. Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, the number of inhabitants fell by nearly 60 of! Most famous for internationally an alliance between you and me [ 144 ], grew! Power for their dynasty or nation look on quietly at the Battle of Lutzen on November 6 1632! With Germany was ready to face the Catholics of Germany, and recognised Calvinism as bridgehead! Ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success Rudolf approved intervention by Cologne...

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