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architecture of hybrid electric vehicles

The controller is a combination of the STA control law and a nonlinearity observer.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.07.013, Ashtiani C, Wright R, Hunt G (2006) Ultracapacitors for automotive applications. https://doi.org/10.1109/speedham.2008.4581106, Bouchafaa F, Beriber D, Boucherit MS, Berkouk EM (2009) Enslavement and control of the multi DC-Bus link voltages using adaptive fuzzy. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2012.2226856, Hafner M, Finken T, Felden M, Hameyer K (2011) Automated virtual prototyping of permanent magnet synchronous machines for HEVs. Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Wang M, Zhu L, Le AV et al (2017) A multifunctional battery module design for electric vehicle. Power converters are proliferated in all kind of applications to increase controllability and efficiency in automotive applications [30]. Reference [222] presents a sensorless algorithm designated for the emergency control of an interior PMSM drive. In: IEEE industry applications annual meeting, New Orleans, 2327–2332. The CSI can be used for the speed control of AC motors, especially induction motors with varying load torque. The IPMSM is still an efficient and attractive machine for traction applications from efficiency and size perspective but with increased cost, mainly due to rare earth material [235]. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Voltage balancing control is very useful as it allows an independent source for every independent MPPT in a distributed MPPT (DMPPT). Accessed 5 Oct 2018, Frost & Sullivan (2007) Global market analysis of plug in hybrid Electric Vehicles.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.07.266, ElMenshawy M, ElMenshawy M, Massoud A, Gastli A (2016) Solar car efficient power converters’ design. In spite of this fact, in depth electrical losses analysis of this configuration and the introduction of more efficient electric component question the adoption of this powertrain as the model of energy efficiency. In: 2016 IEEE 6th international conference on power systems (ICPS), New Delhi, 2016, pp 1–6.https://doi.org/10.1109/icpes.2016.7584213, Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid cars—conserve energy future. In: 2016 IEEE symposium on computer applications & industrial electronics (ISCAIE). The EM is used to charge the HESS by means of regenerative braking [8]. & Singh, D. A comprehensive review on hybrid electric vehicles: architectures and components. In addition, lower stray inductance and package resistance improvements will enable high inverter efficiencies [93]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.04.043, Stienecker AW, Stuart T, Ashtiani C (2006) An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for mild hybrid electric vehicles. It can easily be inferred that the share of green vehicles will increase over the coming years. A mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) has a dual electrical architecture, which consists of a 12 V network connected through a DCDC to a 48 V network. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 67:315–326. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2014.2383615, Chen H, Yang Z, Cheng H (2015) Average torque control of switched reluctance machine drives for electric vehicles. The specification of the motor/generator depends on its usage, like in light/medium/heavy duty vehicles, off/on highway vehicles and locomotives. In: PEDSTC 2014—5th annu int power electron drive syst technol conf, pp 131–136. /Subtype /Form IEEE Trans Veh Technol 66:1027–1039. To split the current between UC and battery, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) and the neural network (NN)-based EMS are used in [124]. This ensures the best efficiencies over the specified operating range. In [292], data are given for BEVs and XHEV for China, USA and Europe for status quo assumption and with breakthrough assumption till 2030, whereas in [293], the worldwide total data are given for BEVs till 2035. Some important thrusts of focus are listed below. 4. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2009.2033605, Babu A, Ashok S (2015) Parallel mild hybrid equivalent to the Tata Safari. Section 6 deals with various MPPT algorithms used in PVHEVs, Sect. An integrated multilevel converter fed by a modular front-end circuit in SRMs for PHEV has been presented in [172].

The current trend indicates that batteries and UC remain as the main choices for ESS [97]. While discussing about HEVs, a natural question that arises is affordability. https://doi.org/10.1109/tapenergy.2015.7229671, Gao Yimin, Ehsani M, Miller J (2005) Hybrid electric vehicle: overview and state of the art. In: 16th international conference on sciences and techniques of automatic control and computer engineering (STA), pp 193–200. IEEE, pp 1–7, Ahadi A, Liang X (2017) A stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system assessment using cost optimization method. The integrated starter generator torque booster for a hybrid propulsion system has been presented in [184, 185].
Control of these excitation sources to make the motor run in different modes for vehicle applications has been demonstrated [242]. Security A HEV requires a controller for the optimum usage of ICE and electric motor power trains. Based on these plans it is expected that about 25 million units would be on the road by 2025. IEEE Trans Transp Electr 555:1–12, Chemali E, McCurlie L, Howey B et al.

The magnetic field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM) is composed of the stator, the modulating ring rotor and the PM HEVs.

Proc IEEE Int Symp Ind Electron (ISIE) 2005:307–316. This is used to extract the maximum power with the help of a boost converter.

As the motor speed varies, the switching frequency also varies, and the maximum sampling frequency is used in DTC. https://doi.org/10.1109/ccece.2008.4564606, Salvatore N, Cascella GL, Aquila AD et al. Depreciation cost HEVs have seen a higher rate of depreciation compared to ICVs. Energy Procedia 117:314–320.

In: India conf (INDICON), annu IEEE, vol 1, pp 875–878, Taylor DG (2014) Systematic approach to the modeling and control of hybrid electric vehicle powertrains. IEEE Trans Power Electron 32:3754–3766. IMs offer a higher power density and better efficiency when compared to the DC machine. In: 2018 19th IEEE mediterr electrotech conf, pp 231–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.10.003, Kuntanapreeda S (2015) Super-twisting sliding-mode traction control of vehicles with tractive force observer. A review on different motors used to propel EVs, their control techniques and rotor speed estimation using sensorless methods has been presented in [249]. The low side of the main contactor (5) is closed and the pre-charge contactor (4). In: 2014 international conference on electrical machines (ICEM), pp 31–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.08.008, Burke A, Miller M (2011) The power capability of ultracapacitors and lithium batteries for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. Int J Hydrogen Energy 39:15169–15177.

The bidirectional ZSI is able to exchange energy between AC and DC energy storage. MPPT algorithms based on the ant colony optimization, FL, ANN, GA and PSO, have been applied to PV systems under changing irradiance conditions. /Group 9 0 R https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2015.12.035, Liu J, Tong C, Jin Z et al (2017) Research on system control and energy management strategy of flux-modulated compound-structure permanent magnet synchronous machine. Energy Procedia 105:2539–2544. An average torque control of SRM for light EVs is proposed to control and estimate the average torque of the motor shaft in [160]. IEEE Trans Ind Inform 9:630–639. © 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2018.07.036. Since vehicles mostly run on internal combustion engine (ICE), the transportation industry is accountable for 25%–30% of the total greenhouse gases emission [1]. IEE Proc-Electric Power Appl 150:139–145. That being said, PMSMs suffer from a major drawback of demagnetization due to armature reaction. 156:755–762.

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