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Anti-European violence broke out in Alexandria, prompting a British naval bombardment of the city. British government representatives in the age of empire may have had the power to dictate or otherwise transform Middle Eastern political destinies, but colonial encounters with the Middle East and other parts of the empire had a substantial impact on British society, culture, and national identity as well. This event, in turn, had a domino effect, and set off the headlong rush for territory that brought nine-tenths of the African continent under European control by 1898 (the year when Britain, working jointly with Egyptian forces, conquered the Sudan). Britain and Empire, 1880–1945. Together with new technologies—above all, the steamship, the railway, and the telegraph—the Suez Canal transformed Britain's contacts with India by dramatically reducing travel time. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. Orientalism Transposed: The Impact of the Colonies on British Culture. 35 vols. London: Frank Cass, 2003. Yapp, Malcolm, ed. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Daly, M. W., gen. ed. After 1922 Egypt gained a parliament, while its dynastic ruler, a descendant of the Ottoman governor Muhammad Ali, was declared king. With Mussolini's Italy in control of Libya, on Egypt's western flank, Britain faced up to the possibility of a German and Italian invasion within North Africa. Almost daily demonstrations and unrest continued throughout Egypt for the remainder of the Spring. Porter, Bernard, The Lion's Share: A Short History of British Imperialism, 1850-1995 (1996). ." Martin's, 2004. from the far corners of the empire) went on to fight important engagements in the Dardanelles (the ill-fated Gallipoli campaign), Mesopotamia (in the region corresponding to what is now southern and central Iraq), and the Suez Canal zone and Greater Syria (culminating in the British entry into Jerusalem in December 1917). Years later, the Islamic Revolution of 1978–1979 unseated Mohammed Reza Shah and brought to power the Ayatollah Khomeini, whose anti-Western message was a response to Iran's modern history of Western imperialism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Accumulated literary and artistic representations of the exotic, despotic East, retrograde and debauched, also provided the foil against which late nineteenth-century British writers constructed an image of the British national and imperial character as rational, modern, moral, and strong. When Britain tried to prevent Egyptian nationalist leaders from airing their views at the Paris Peace Conference, a popular nationalist revolt broke out. (It was signed one year after a comparable treaty between Britain and Russia, the Constantinople Agreement of 1915, which Russia's postrevolutionary Bolshevik government later waived.) In turn, Egyptian nationalists spread fear of invasion throughout the country to bolster Islamic and Arabian revolutionary action. Many of the Europeans retreated to specially designed quarters suited for defense or heavily European-settled cities such as Alexandria. The Peace Settlements 1918-1923; The British Mandates in Iraq, Palestine and Transjordan; Nationalist Trends in the Middle East; The Middle East and the Second World War, 1939-1945; The Post-War Middle East, 1945-54; The Creation of the State of Israel, 1947-49; Internationalism and Imperialism in the Middle East: The entrance of Russia and America; The Cold War context; The Egyptian Coup and the Suez Crisis, 1952-1956; A Graceful Retreat. Méouchy, Nadine, and Peter Sluglett, eds.

By the 1830s British transport from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean occurred along two main routes: the first stretched from the Syrian Desert, down the Euphrates River, and into the Persian Gulf; the second, which became increasingly important as the nineteenth century progressed, crossed the isthmus of Suez into the Red Sea. The San Remo Conference separated the Arab provinces from the Ottoman Empire and allocated spheres of influence to France and Britain, drawing the outlines for the country borders that we see today on the Middle East map. "British Colonialism, Middle East The number of foreigners in the country rose from 10,000 in the 1840s to around 90,000 in the 1880s, and more than 1.5 million by the 1930s.[4]. In nationalizing the canal, Nasser drew some inspiration from the Iranian Prime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh, who had tried to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1953 (until a CIA-backed coup in Iran had thwarted his efforts). Along with France, Britain played the leading role in dismantling the Ottoman Empire after World War I and in creating new government entities in the Fertile Crescent, that is, future nation-states. Army units from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq invaded the next day, but fared poorly. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . But in fact Britain kept a hold over Egypt for the next seventy years and only withdrew its last troops from the Suez Canal in 1956. London: Methuen, 1981.

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